The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of only two monarchs, a father and his son, who ruled Iran for a total of 54 years, from 1925 to 1979. The present book deals with the meteoric rise of Reza Khan from an unknown reserve infantry soldier in Iran's Cossack regiment to the autocratic king and the life and times of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, known in the West as the Shah, whose reign was brought to an end by 1979 Islamic Revolution. The Pahlavis were Iran's last dynasty and their downfall brought an abrupt end to over two millennia of monarchical rule in the land historically known as Persia. This book is part of a series of translations from the Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam (EWI) which was originally compiled in Persian. Other entries from this encyclopaedia which are available in English include Hadith, Hawza-yi 'Ilmiyya, History and Historiography, Muslim Organisations, Political Parties, Qur'anic Exegeses, Sufism, and Education in the Islamic Civilisation.