70 years after the author wrote it, this book is still relevant. The Islamic character as it exists today has changed relatively little since Shakib's time. Unjust and selfish Muslim leadership, degenerated ulama with selfish aims of protecting their own lives instead of correcting the errors of their kings and heads, the ultra moderns and the ultra-conservatives. The Muslim world still awaits redemption at all levels, ruler and ruled, young and old, rich and poor. First published in the 1930s, this is a response to a letter Shaykh Muhammad Bisyooni Umran of Indonesia requesting the author to explain the causes of Muslim weakness at the present and the causes of the strength of the Europeans and the Japanese, the factors behind their glorious empires and sovereignty, their power and wealth. His response, written in a state of great agitation became one of the masterpieces of eloquence and a proof of his wisdom.