This book, which originated in a conference held to honour Dr. Fathi Osman, starts with a redefinition of what modernity signifies. Rejecting ideological and ethnocentric definitions of modernity, the contributors depart from the understanding that Islam is already an important component of life in the modern world. The discussion focuses specifically on the moral challenge posed by modernity to Islamic beliefs and thinking, in particular the questions raised by modern thinking and practice in the areas of democracy, human rights and the status of minorities. The contributors approach these questions from different angles, but agree on the need to offer creative but Islamically authentic responses to these challenges. In the process, they challenge some dominant conceptions both within modern and Islamic thinking.