Soon after the inception of the theory of evolution, Muslim scholars were met with the challenge of reconciling Islam’s traditional beliefs concerning the origin of man with certain dictates of the evolutionary narrative. Perhaps the most gripping and pertinent of these was the issue of assigning biological parentage to Adam (‘alayh al-salam). For over 140 years, Muslim scholars have sought to preserve belief in the original creation of Adam (‘alayh al-salam) by formulating a variety of rejoinders focusing on different aspects of the theory of evolution and through an array of apologetics. Oftentimes, many of the arguments were directed foremost against fellow Muslims who sought to make way for evolutionary theory through differing hermeneutical approaches.
This monograph investigates the original creation of Adam (alayh al-salam) by utilizing the analytical, two-tier approach of Muslim dialecticians whereby firstly, the mere rational possibility (imkan) of a human being created without biological parentage will be demonstrated, and secondly, to prove its actual occurrence (wuqu’). The author takes a critical approach to prove that irreconcilable theological inconsistencies would arise from denying Adamic originality, thereby proving that belief in his original creation remains certain (qat’i) notwithstanding the demands of the theory of evolution.